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1 Allsopp, Michelle.  Achieving Zero Dioxin: An emergency strategy for dioxin elimination.  September 1994.  Greenpeace.  http://archive.greenpeace.org/toxics/reports/azd/azd.html

2 Greenpeace.  New Tests Confirm TBT Poison in Procter & Gamble's Pampers: Greenpeace Demands World-Wide Ban of Organotins in All Products. 15 May 2000.


3 Armstrong, Liz and Adrienne Scott   Whitewash: Exposing the Health and Environmental Dangers of Women's Sanitary Products and Disposable Diapers, What You Can Do About It. 1993. HarperCollins.

4 Lehrburger, Carl. 1988. Diapers in the Waste Stream: A review of waste management and public policy issues. 1988. Sheffield, MA: self-published.

5 Link, Ann.  Disposable nappies: a case study in waste prevention.  April 2003.  Women's Environmental Network.

6 Lehrburger, C., J. Mullen and C.V. Jones. 1991.  Diapers: Environmental Impacts and Lifecycle Analysis.  Philadelphia, PA: Report to The National Association of Diaper Services (NADS). 

7 Average of 8 changes per day over 2 years (8x365x2=5,840)

8 We are using 2 as the average age of transition from diapers to toilet use.

  9 60x52x$0.255=$795.60, or $800.  $800x2years=$1,600.  $1,600÷24=$66 per month.

10 3 dozen each in two sizes accommodates most babies

11 6 dozen prefolds at an average of $2.16 each and 16 covers at $8.50 each ((72x$2.16)+(12x$8.50)=$292)

12 $300÷2 children = $150 per child.  Compare to $1,600 per child for disposables

13 8.8 million x 60 x 52 = 27.4 billion

14 Cloth diapering is 90% cheaper.  90% of $7 billion is $6.3 billion.

15 Food costs calculated at $2,475 per child per year or $6.78 per child per day for 3 meals and 2 snacks.  Costs based on U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Nutrition Service, Child and Adult Care Food Program.  Figures current as of July 2003.  http://www.fns.usda.gov/cnd/Care/CACFP/cacfpfaqs.htm

16 Percent of People in Poverty by Definition of Income and Selected Characteristics: 2002 (Revised).  http://www.census.gov/hhes/poverty/poverty02/r&dtable5.html

17Stone, Janis and Sternweis, Laura.  Consumer Choice -- Diaper Dilemma. Iowa Sate University - University Extension. ID.# 1401. 1994.


18C-J Partsch, M Aukamp, W G Sippell  Scrotal temperature is increased in disposable plastic lined nappies. Division of Paediatric Endocrinology, Department of Paediatrics, Christian-Albrechts- University of Kiel, Schwanenweg 20, D-24105 Kiel, Germany. Arch Dis Child 2000;83:364-368.

Click here or go to http://adc.bmjjournals.com and search by the title of the study.

19 Boiko, S. 1997. Diapers and diaper rashes. February 1, 1997. Dermatology Nursing.

20 Shin, H.T. 2005. Diaper dermatitis that does not quit. Dermatologic Therapy, 18: 124-135.

21 Weiner, F. 1979. The relationship of diapers to diaper rashes in the one-month-old infant. The Journal of Pediatrics, 95: 422-424.

22 Stein, H. 1982. Incidence of diaper rash when using cloth and disposable diapers The Journal of Pediatrics, 101: 721-723.

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